Improving Coal Quality Technology
Coal plays a vital role in the production of electricity worldwide. Thermal power is the main characteristic of coal. We distinguish between the lower and upper thermal power of coal. Upper heat is the amount of heat released by complete combustion (transformation of the chemical into thermal energy) of 1kg of coal if, after combustion, the products of combustion (gases and ash) were cooled to the temperature (about 20oC) held by the fuel and air (required for combustion). before the process, with all the water vapor condensing. Water vapor in combustion products is produced by the combustion of hydrogen from fuel and moisture contained in coal. The lower thermal power differs from the upper only for the water condensation heat.
The moisture content of coal decreases its thermal power. Coal has low moisture content (3-5%), brown (up to 40%), and lignite (up to 60%). We distinguish between coarse and hygroscopic moisture. Coarse moisture enters the coal from the environment when extracted from the mine, transported and stored. It can be reduced by air drying. Hygroscopic moisture is found in the pores of coal and is called internal moisture. It depends on the properties of the coal and can be removed by heating it at a temp. from about 100C. Ash content is defined as the amount of non-combustible ingredients per 1kg of coal.
The composition of the ash affects its control during combustion because the composition depends on the temperature of the extraction of the ash, which affects the usability of coal.
Coal is harmful to the environment. Coal combustion produces several toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. No other non-renewable energy source emits as much carbon dioxide as coal. Spreading dust and soot during coal burning is also a big problem.
Types of coals with their carbon percentage - Coal is a product of vegetation transformation, with plants gradually dying out, sinking into mud and covering themselves with segments whose layers grew thicker. Under the influence of high pressure, temperature and micro-organisms, gradually and over millions of years, these plant deposits were converted first to peat, then to coal.
Coal is fuel sediment. It consists predominantly of residues, that is, the product of the decay of plants, and originated from peatlands from the distant past. The carbonization process is achieved by gradually increasing the relative carbon content (C) while reducing the relative carbon content (C), oxygen content (O2), nitrogen (N2), hydrogen (H2). We have a series of successive transformations: beryllium and wood -> shake -> lignite -> brown coal -> coal. This process took hundreds of millions of years.
There are various methods for classifying by origin, purpose, age, thermal power, by the concentration of carbon in their composition and other characteristics of coal.
The lignites are brown to dark gray. In their structure, it can be seen that they originate from wood, which is why they call it "charcoal". It burns well, is used in solid fuel stoves and for central heating. The carbon content is 60 to 65%, extremely up to 70%, hydrogen to 5.5% in dry matter, oxygen 25 to 30%, ash 7 to 14% and humidity 40 to 50%. The heat value ranges from 6 to 12.5 MJ / kg, with some sulfur content.
Brown coal has dark brown and dark black or bluish color. It is quite compact and tough in composition. Brown coal is characterized by a poorly maintained woody structure, brown to black. The carbon content is 65-80%, hydrogen 3-5%, oxygen 18-25%, ash to 25%, volatile matter 45-54%.
Stone coal has a dark gray to black color. It is most commonly used in large cubes, so it is not suitable for smaller stoves but can be used. It is ideal for large industrial plants, large boiler rooms, but also for installations where the heating system is very complex. Also, coal is burned in its entirety and the amount of ash and slag left behind is insignificant. It is of high calorific value. It is mainly used in industry due to its high heat value. Carbon content is 80 to 98%, ash 0.5 to 40%, oxygen about 5%, hydrogen about 5%, and thermal power ranges from 25 to 36 MJ / kg. It is important to know that coal has low moisture content and does not need extra drying. Its percentage is 3-10% depending on storage and excavation territory. Fifth Coal Technology is in partnership for a coal improvement technology in Asia that has the right resources and trained professional in the field, for one reason or another we can't publish this to general Public, however we are open for consultation, Call us for no obligation quote!
Anthracite is a type of high calorie and high energy coal. They are characterized by very high carbon processes, which gives high energy value. Anthracite is the oldest coal and it is especially great. The carbon content of anthracite ranges from 92% -98%. In addition to carbon in anthracite, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and negligible amounts of sulfur are also present. Due to high energy values, very high temperatures are generated, use in industry. Such as cement production, metallurgy, the ideal fuel for blast furnaces in steel production and rotary kilns, it can also be used in water treatment plants. Anthracite has a large source of heat, therefore, high heating power, but also slow-burning, and is therefore very expensive and has it in small quantities.
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