Lighnite Quality Improvement Technology
Renewable energy are those that have taken millions of years to create. What they have in common is that they will be spent in a relatively short period compared to the time it took to create them. Coal was the first non-renewable energy source that humanity began to use. England played a particularly significant role in the development of coal exploitation. Coal was essential for the development of our civilization. In addition to being suitable for generating electricity, coal is also an inexpensive energy source, at least for countries where it is easily accessible.
Earth's energy sources can be divided into those that are being regenerated and those that are being depleted. Exhaustive are those for which the rate of wear is greater than the speed of creation. Those are:
1. Fossil fuels
2. Nuclear fuels (fission and fusion)
3. Geometric energy
4. Fossil fuels are coal, oil, natural gas, oil shale, and bituminous sand. Common to all fossil fuels is combustion. Combustion is an exothermic chemical reaction of coupling fuels with oxygen in which the released energy is transferred to molecules such as kinetic energy, and the temperature rise is manifested. The most important characteristic of fuel is its thermal power. This is the energy released by the complete combustion of fuel mass units and the cooling of the combustion product to the temperature that the fuel and oxygen had before the reaction.
Coal as a source of energy has a wide application in various production processes such as:
- production of steam, heat, and electricity
- production of cement
- manufacture of steel and alloys
- manufacturing processes in various other branches of industry.
Latest technology for improving coal - In most countries, new technologies are being developed and improved. Underground coal exploitation should be directed towards the application of automated complex equipment in conventional systems and the possibilities of conquering modern systems, hydro power, underground gasification, underground coal combustion, etc.
Requirements for the continuous supply of sufficient energy for industrial plants, transport, and living standards require the development of new technologies based on fossil fuels (liquidized bed combustion plants, combined gasification cycles, combined gas and natural gas cycles, fuels.
Generally, electricity is produced in large centralized plants. The electricity produced in this way is delivered to consumers through the electricity distribution network. The thermal energy generated in such a process is not fully utilized, so some of the heat is emitted to the environment. The provision of the necessary energy for heating and cooling by the remote consumers is realized simultaneously by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuels or the use of renewable energy. Fifth coal energy uses lignite's inherent characteristic of water absorption, self heating process under specific pressure, temperature and humidity, so that the moisture inside the process of lignite would dissipate to the surface of lignite. The large amount of water vapor generated by the self-heated lignite will be quickly removed by using moving air column, thereby achieving the purpose of removing water content and improving the quality of lignite
Although unconventional energy sources have a relatively small share of the total energy balance, their importance should not be neglected. Science and professional practice face the important task of increasing the use of all types of energy and technologies that reduce environmental pollution, as well as of renewable unconventional energy sources as a partial alternative to non-renewable energy sources.
The high proportion of carbon and harmful ballast constituents make coal combustion a process with the largest pollutant and producer of CO2 emissions per unit of electricity produced. The answer to this problem is the development of "clean coal" technologies, which reduce this negative impact to an environmentally friendly level. Initially, "clean coal" technologies have focused on reducing emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulate matter so that due to increasing concern for climate change, attention is increasingly focused on reducing CO2 emissions. Technologies for producing electricity from fossil fuels with zero CO2 emissions into the atmosphere have not yet been developed to maximum commercial viability, but it is realistic to expect this in the coming period. For this reason, developments in the development of clean coal technologies should be taken into account in the strategic planning of capacity building in the electricity system.
The following should be distinguished from "clean coal" technologies:
a) Coal flushing technology, which includes "coal refining", thereby reducing ash emissions and SOx also has a beneficial effect on the combustion process (coal is transported together with a mineral content that is non-combustible and may contain harmful ingredients (such as mercury), is ground and introduced into a slow-rotating drum containing higher density fluid, thus that the coal floats as it weighs, the mineral material sinks and is drained from the bottom from the drum, so that the purified coal is then ground into fine dust suitable for combustion).
b) The technology of separation of solid particles, using electrostatic filters and removal of up to 99% of ash from flue gases (working on the principle of the electrostatic field in which particles are electrically charged and collected at the anode).
c) Sulfur oxide (desulphurisation) technologies, usually with a wet desulphurisation process, which removes up to 99% SOx from the flue gas (the flue gases react with a dispersed mixture of calcium carbonate (limestone) and water to form gypsum (calcium sulfate), which is removed and used in the construction industry).
d) Nitrogen Oxide Reduction (NOx) technologies, first through primary measures during the combustion process, which is achieved by the proper design of the burner and the gradual supply of air and fuel, reducing the maximum temperature in the flame core and reducing the oxygen concentration in the combustion zone (the amount of NOx produced per the mode may be reduced to less than 300 mg / m3.
e) Technologies with increasing thermal utilization of plants whereby the latest designs of coal-fired power plants with ultra-critical steam parameters (> 600 C and> 30.0 MPa) predict more than 50% efficiency.
f) Biomass pre-combustion technologies made up of various wildlife products (such as manure, sawdust, harvest or harvest residues, animal excrement, municipal and industrial waste), neutral from the point of view of CO2 production (produced by taking CO2 from nature, although some CO2 is produced during the cultivation, harvesting, and transport of biomass or the material from which it was generated, whereby the process of burning biomass with coal is considered a transitional phase in the process of fossil fuel replacement and CO2 reduction).
g) Coal gasification (gas) technology, which has many perspectives to replace today's conventional coal combustion technologies creates a hydrogen-rich synthetic gas, with some estimates saying that future plants to achieve higher utilization rates.
h) Technologies with CO2 emissions from flue gases that have not yet been optimized for full application in coal-fired TPPs because their development was more focused on producing pure CO2 for industrial purposes than on reducing CO2 emissions from energy plants.
i) Geological storage technology for CO2 (sequestration), which involves the separation of CO2 and its various variants for deep storage in the Earth's interior to prevent penetration into the atmosphere.
Obligations to radically reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions will require increasing the use of non-fossil fuels, primarily renewable sources such as water, wind, sun, biomass, and increasing energy efficiency and the application of new technologies.
All solutions to present and future exploitation must be based on the principles and criteria of sustainable development. This means that they are appropriately covered by environmental protection as a matter of particular national importance and beyond.
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